From: "Meet the Freshmen" page (welcoming the Freshmen Class of 2004), on "National Republican Congressional Committee" website (http://nrcc.org/nrcc_contents/freshmen/; viewed 4 November 2005):
Representative Joe Schwarz in Michigan's Seventh District. A U.S. Navy veteran, and former CIA operative, Rep. Schwarz is also a medical surgeon. A former Mayor of Battle Creek and a City Commissioner, Schwarz has extensive experience within the district. A former state Senator, Schwarz served as a member of the Appropriations Committee and chaired the Subcommittees on Higher Education and General Government. He is a member of the St. Philip Catholic Church in Battle Creek.